Scarborough’s Glorious Gardens: Part II

Some of Scarborough’s many stunning gardens have already been explored in Part I, including Clarence Gardens, the Italian Gardens and the Rose Garden. This post discusses Valley Gardens, Holbeck Gardens, and a few others.

Valley Gardens

In 1862, shortly after the rennovation of the Spa in the late 1850s, the nearby Ramsdale Valley became home to Valley Gardens. Initially these gardens were known as ‘The People’s Park’. The Scarborough Corporation made the decision to decorate each side of Valley Road, with rockwork, plants and flowers, as well as a small pool, which had previously supplied water to Scarborough’s corn mills, which had closed a decade earlier.

Valley Gardens

Above: Overview of Ramsdale Valley (source)

Below: The People’s Park, later known as Valley Gardens (source)

Valley Gardens

Complete with a jet d’eau, lily pond, swans and small island, the final addition came in the form of a skeleton iron bridge, bought by Robert Williamson, or rather rescued, from the River Ouse in York, into which it had fallen. Then known as Lendal Bridge, its reincarnation in Scarborough is now known as Valley Bridge (not to be confused with the Spa Bridge, which connects the Grand Hotel with the Spa).

Below: The bridge across the valley affords excellent views of the gardens (source)

Valley Bridge

The Valley Bridge opened in 1865, just three years after the park, which was formally renamed Valley Gardens in 1912. There are more beautiful pictures of the park here, and the lily pond is pictured below:

Valley Gardens

Above: The lily pond (source)

Holbeck Gardens

The Scarborough Corporation commissioned Holbeck Gardens in the late nineteenth century, and they were designed by William Skipsey. Starting just south of Dickenson Point, the gardens soon encompassed a vast network of winding cliffside paths that stretched all the way to the Esplanade.

Holbeck Gardens

Above: Part of Holbeck Gardens (source)

On the left there is a touching memorial to a fallen soldier, and during the warmer months wild rabbits and squirrels can sometimes be seen on the grassy slopes.

Below: A view from the gardens towards the castle (source)

Holbeck Gardens

The paths lead all the way from the top of the cliffs to the beach below, and offer walkers enchanting views across the South Bay and Spa. However, the entrance to the vast network of paths is located next to the Esplanade.

Holbeck Gardens

Above: The Clock Tower at the entrance (source)

When George V was crowned in 1911, a special clock tower was built on Scarborough’s Esplanade to commemorate the event, and this was then donated to Holbeck Gardens in the same year, by William Shuttleworth. At the end of WWI a putting green was also added close by.

Below: A stunning floral display next to the Clock Tower (source)

Holbeck Gardens

Holbeck Gardens

Above: The Putting Green in the 1930s (source)

Although much of the gardens remains today, relatively unchanged, the furthermost end, closest to Holbeck Hall, has, since 1993, changed dramatically.

Holbeck Gardens

Above: Alternative view of Holbeck Gardens (source)

A landslide in 1993 transformed a large part of the gardens, and destroyed nearby Holbeck Hall.

Holbeck Hall and Gardens

Above: Holbeck Hall once overlooked Holbeck Gardens (source)

Built in 1879, by George Alderson Smith, Holbeck Hall was originally a private residence, eventually becoming a hotel in the twentieth century. The landslide began on June 3rd, following heavy rainfall, which eventually precipitated the collapse of the building two days later. Parts of the hotel fell into the sea, and the remainder was later demolished. Parts of the area still remain off limits to visitors.

Miniature Garden

As well as the clock tower, Alfred Shuttleworth was responsible for the miniature garden on the Esplanade.

Miniature Garden, South Cliff

Above: The Miniature Garden (source)

This intricate little garden features several small buildings and bridges as well as a small stream. All of the above gardens, as well as those featured in Part I, will be covered in more details soon.

Which garden is your favourite? Do you remember the Holbeck Hall landslide? Share your memories/thoughts in the comments section below…

Sources

Parks and Gardens

Ramsdale Valley

Historic England

Scarborough Civic Society

 

Scarborough’s Glorious Gardens: Part I

Aside from Peasholm Park, Northstead Manor Gardens and Alexandra Gardens, which have already been covered here, Scarborough has, over the years, boasted numerous splendid gardens. In this post you can enjoy a visual feast of some of the others, whose histories will be covered in more depth soon.

Clarence Gardens

In the nineteenth century, Britain was still coming to terms with the effects of rapid industrialisation, and problems associated with urban growth led public officials across the country to develop public parks. Such places offered respite from gruelling city life, as well as fresh air, flowers and trees. Scarborough was no different, and in the 1800s and early 1900s, a plethora of parks and gardens appeared, including Clarence Gardens.

Clarence Gardens

Above: Clarence Gardens (source)

Clarence Gardens was located on the North Bay, overlooking the doomed North Bay Pier. It was laid out by Leonard Thompson, Superintendant of Scarborough Cemetery (1865 – 1911) and opened in 1896 alongside the Royal Albert Drive.

Clarence Gardens

Above: View of the gardens and Royal Albert Drive, plus the remains of the pier, in approximately 1905 (source)

The gardens featured a bandstand and a stage, winding walkways across the cliffs and even a small bridge.

Clarence Gardens

Above: Performers entertain a small audience (source)

Although the bandstand, much of the seating and the live entertainment are now long gone, the winding pathways remain, and the nearby Clarence Gardens Hotel, keeps the name alive.

Italian Gardens

Italian Gardens

Above: The Italian Gardens Lily Pond (source)

The Italian Gardens were yet another creation of Scarborough’s legendary Borough Engineer, Harry W. Smith. During his tenure he set about transforming areas of wasteland into beauty spots for tourists and locals, and his successes include Peasholm Park, Alexandra Gardens and the South Bay Pool.

Italian Gardens

Above: The statue of Mercury (source)

The centrepiece of the gardens is a lily pond surrounding a pedestal which sports a statue of Mercury – Roman god of financial gain, poetry, communication, and travel, amongst other things. Since 2000 a resin cast has replaced the original statue, but before it was constructed, Smith had one of his staff pose on the pedestal to check positioning and measurements.

Italian Gardens

Above: Edwardian visitors at the gardens (source)

Two raised platforms at each end of the gardens feature pergola shelters with teak seats, which were added in 1914 and enabled visitors to enjoy views across the garden. Interesting fact – the stone used in the development of this area was excavated from the site of what would later become the South Bay Pool.

Rose Gardens

Rose Garden

Above: The Rose Garden (source)

Below: In colour (source)

Rose Garden

Measuring 57m by 13.4m, the Rose Garden, located close to the Esplanade on the South Cliff, features 32 rose beds, including 10 circular beds in the centre, 18 side beds and 4 corner beds. The garden is sheltered by conifers and deciduous trees and was the subject of a major restoration project, completed in 2015. Originally known as the Belvedere Rose Garden (or, The Large Rosary), the garden was part of a larger site acquired in 1883 by Lord Beeforth.

Part II will include Holbeck Gardens and Valley Gardens, and of course, many more pictures of beautiful Scarborough gardens.

Have you ever visited any of these gardens? Share your thoughts in the comments section below…

Sources

Historic England

Friends of South Cliff Gardens

South Cliff Gardens Leaflet

Scarborough Civic Society

The Grand Opening of Peasholm Park

Peasholm Park is one of Scarborough’s best loved and longest running attractions. From its conception in the early 1900s by Borough Engineer Harry W. Smith, the park has offered much to visitors, from features inspired by China and Japan, to lively naval re-enactments in the summer.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Park (source)

When the park officially opened, on June 19, 1912, an unnamed journalist from the Yorkshire Post wrote a beautiful piece in the paper (Thursday June 20, 1912) about the park, its construction and the opening, selections of which are included here, as impressions of Peasholm Park during its earliest days of operation.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Park during the early years (source)

Described as “an excellent bit of landscape gardening”, the article describes a site measuring 11.5 acres – 8 of which were purchased from the Crown (as part of the Northstead Estate) and a private firm, and the rest from the Corporation, which acquired the land “some years ago for allotments and other purposes.”

Apparently the site, known locally as Tucker’s Field, had also been used as a rubbish dump.

Laying out began in December 1911, and 60 men were employed to work on the park over the winter. By summer 1912, “residents have marvelled at the change brought about in so short time”, and the article notes that:

An outstanding feature of the park is a good-sized ornamental lake, with islands and waterfall, and a chain of smaller lakes extending at different levels up the glen, the total water area being 4.5 acres and the average depth 3ft.

(from the Yorkshire Post, Thursday June 20, 1912)

This was a much simpler park than that of today.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Park – a view of the lake (source)

Furthermore, the process of creating the park uncovered some fascinating historical remains:

Archaeology has something to say in this improvement. It is stated that the larger lake is over the site of the Manor of Northstead, the stewardship of which is sometimes assigned to members of Parliament wishing to retire. In the course of the excavations the foundations of ancient buildings were unearthed.

What looked like the base of a tower bore traces of Norman origin, as did also the remains of a fireplace, built with tiles laid in herring-bone fashion similar to that seen in the Keep of Scarborough Castle. Small portions of painted glass of the 15th century were found, a large number of stone tiles, a silver penny of the reign of Edward II, a bronze spur, and many broken fragments of medieval pottery.

The remains showed that the whole of the buildings were surrounded by a wall enclosing a considerable area of ground, extending up the sides and across the large mound, which now forms the main island in the lake, and of which traces can still be seen.

Unfortunately the whole of these foundations could not be left exposed to view, as they were much below the water level of the lake. But the plan of them has been made, and will be preserved. Some portions of the tower foundations project above the water line.

(from the Yorkshire Post, Thursday June 20, 1912)

The author then goes on to describe the park in more detail.

The large island in the lake is of natural formation and rises above the water level to a height of some 45 feet. It has been ornamentally planted, and a series of winding walks lead to the top, from which there is a charming view of the district. The smaller island was formed out of material excavated to form the lake, and is intended as a refuge for the waterfowl.

The lagoon between the large and small islands is planted with a varied assortment of water lilies and other aquatic plants.The lake has been stocked with some 2,000 fish, chiefly perch, roach and tench, and it is intended later on to issue tickets for fishing.

A very pretty Japanese wooden bridge connects the island with  the mainland. A small shelter or arbour of quant design has been built. A boat-house of Japanese design  with landing stage is raised over the lake on brick piers. The lake is fed from the brooklet which rises in Raincliffe Woods and runs through the Ravine, and enters the large lake over a double waterfall some 9 feet in length. This waterfall is flanked on either side with extensive rockeries, beautifully furnished with ornamental shrubs, the  large clumps of New Zealand flax being very conspicuous.

Boating without risk can be indulged in. There are three Canadian canoes, two pair-oared rowing skiffs, three single-oared skiffs, three dinghies and one large family boat. Only £2,000 has been spent in making this interesting transformation, including the part purchase of the land, boats, buildings, etc., and it is, therefore, one of the most effective and economical of improvements the town has seen.

(from the Yorkshire Post, Thursday June 20, 1912)

Peasholm Park

Above: The park later became a leafy paradise (source)

The opening, as with all new attractions in Scarborough during the late 1800s and early to mid 1900s, was of course a grand ceremonial affair:

The Mayor and Mayoress (Mr. and Mrs T.H. Good), accompanied the whole body of aldermen  and councillors in their scarlet and violet robes, and by the town officials, drove to the park from the Town Hall. At a rustic gateway the Mayoress untied a tricolour ribbon and declared the park open to the public. Alderman M. T. Whittaker, chairman of the Committeee which carried out the work, tendered to her the thanks of the Corporation, and in reply the Mayor observed that there was no health or pleasure resort in England where there were so many public parks and places of recreation and amusement as in Scarborough.

After these preliminaries, the Corporation forthwith took to the water. In other words, they had a trial trip on the boats round the lake, rowed by expert oarsmen. The stern of the boat in which the mayor and Mayoress, the Deputy Mayor, and the Town Clerk were seated,  sank deep in the water, and some onlookers feared lest civic dignity might be compromised by a capsize. But the entire voyage was made in safety.

(from the Yorkshire Post, Thursday June 20, 1912)

Peasholm Park

Above: Local dignitaries at the opening of Peasholm Park in 1912 (source)

In contrast with the veteran father of the Corporation appeared a little lady in a canoe, shading herself with an umbrella (Japanese, of course, to harmonise with bridge and boat-house), privileged to be there by a part she had played in the ceremony in presenting the mayoress with a bouquet. Stepping ashore, the company walked over the bridge and round the island, and then left to discharge the second ceremony of the afternoon.

(from the Yorkshire Post, Thursday June 20, 1912)

Peasholm Park

Above: A view of the lake and island – the pagoda was not constructed until 1929 (source)

The information in this post was obtained from an old edition of the Yorkshire Post (Thursday June 20, 1912) at the British Library and was verified by checking against various other sources used in the research for this project.

Carmen at the Open Air Theatre

When Scarborough’s Open Air Theatre opened in 1932, in the heart of the new Northstead Manor Gardens, it was clear that this was to be no ordinary theatre. Actors occupied a stage in the middle of a lake, with an orchestra on floating barges, and performances faced constant threats of wind and rain, both of which could potentially jeopardise ambitious sets and carefully rehearsed musical numbers.

Open Air Theatre

Above: The Open Air Theatre (source)

Yet in spite of the many risks, open air theatre performances enjoyed nationwide popularity in Britain during the 1930s. On July 17th, 1934, the Manchester Guardian noted:

Dramatic performances in the open air seem to be coming into vogue…

(‘In the Open Air’, Manchester Guardian Jul 17 1934)

The article then goes on to list a whole host of ambitious projects at range of different locations, including Regents Park (London), a park in Salford (Greater Manchester), Abinger (Surrey), MacBeth in Morecambe and outdoor theatre performances in Cambridge.

Open Air Theatre

Above: Scarborough was not the only UK location experimenting with outdoor theatre (source)

Nonetheless, the outdoor theatre at Northstead Manor Gardens was surely one of the most unusual examples of this nationwide trend. One journalist at the Manchester Guardian was keen to note how impressed he was with Scarborough’s attempt to showcase Carmen in 1935.

…probably the first time a serious opera has been produced in the open air in England…

(‘“Carmen” in the open air: Scarborough experiment’, The Manchester Guardian, July 19, 1935 – all subsequent quotes are taken from this article)

The author, referred to only as G.A.H, had been invited to witness a rehearsal for the show on a unsettled grey day. His concerns lay mainly with how Carmen, a complex opera with many subtle and complicated musical moments, would fare in the open air, without a roof or walls to contain the acoustics and help the audience connect with the music.

The orchestra is placed in barges or rafts fronting the stage. The scenery is devised so that it may be sufficient for theatrical purposes while blending with natural surroundings…

However, he notes that:

…the music kept to a surprising degree its warmth and intensity…

He even names the key cast members: Miss Constance Willis as Carmen, as well as Mr Arthur Cox and Mr Redvers Llewellyn as male principles. There’s a postcard showing them below:

Carmen at the Open Air Theatre

Above: The Carmen cast (source)

The orchestra was directed by Mr A C Keeton, and included 43 ‘sufficiently skilled’ players.

Open Air Theatre

Above: Productions included not just acting and singing, but dancing too (source)

There was also a degree of West End glamour about the production, given that it was produced by a Mr Sumner Austin, who had worked at the Old Vic and Sadler’s Wells in London.

You can view Mr Austin’s directorial and producing credentials by clicking here.

Whilst complementary about the production, the Manchester Guardian journalist highlights the problems facing the cast and technical crew:

…alas that the rain came before it finished…

However, this was not the end of the world, and he notes that:

…a skilful company, good outdoor environment and favourable weather [means that] opera in the open can be artistically achieved…

One can’t help but admire the ambition of the Scarborough Amateur Operatic Society, who, year after year for over three decades embraced the unpredictable British weather to put on show after show of the highest quality.

Did you see any of their productions? Please comment or visit the Facebook Page.

Sources

The Manchester Guardian archive via Proquest Historical Newspapers

The Theatricalia website

 

The North Bay Miniature Railway

Scarborough’s North Bay Railway is one of the town’s most enduring and well-loved attractions.  Passengers can board the train at either Northstead Manor Gardens (the stop, however is called ‘Peasholm‘, after nearby Peasholm Park) or Scalby Mills, and take a scenic ride through park, along the seafront and back again.

North Bay Railway

Above: The North Bay Railway (source)

The railway opened in 1931, as part of the brand new Northstead Manor Gardens (Pleasure Gardens), which would eventually include a water chute, open air theatre and boating lake. The gardens were the brainchild of Harry W Smith, a prolific engineer who designed many of the town’s most successful tourist attractions. However, the miniature railway proposals met with a mixed reception from locals, gaining the nickname ‘the Borough Engineer’s Toy’.

Northstead Manor Gardens

Above: From the early development of Northstead Manor Gardens at Hodgson’s Slack (source)

At 2pm, Saturday May 23, 1931, the railway began taking passengers. As with all of Scarborough’s opening ceremonies of this era, the occasion was a grand one, with the presentation of artefacts to the driver (see below). Neptune was the name of the original locomotive, and Alderman Whitehead, presiding over the occasion, made the following solemn decree:

“On behalf of the National Union of Drivers, Engineers and others, I have to present you, the first driver of the North Bay Railway Engine, with your insignia of office, your oil can and your ‘sweat rag’.”

Neptune is the oldest engine, having begun its service in 1931. Triton and Robin Hood followed only a year after, and in 1933, Poseidon. The first two locomotives are still owned by Scarborough Council (then the Scarborough Corporation), with the remaining two owned by the operators (North Bay Railway Company), to whom Triton and Neptune are leased.

North Bay Railway

Above: The train setting off from Peasholm station (source)

A number of companies were involved with the construction of the trains and carriages, including Robert Hudson Ltd (Leeds), Hudswell Clark, Slingsby and Armstrong and subsequent additions and restorative work completed by Rail Restorations North East Limited, of Shildon. The original carriages have undergone much restoration to ensure their survival to the present day. Furthermore, the Patent Enamel Company provided the station boards whilst advertising boards and posters were provided by LNER (London and North Eastern Railway).

North Bay Railway

Above: Passengers enjoy the picturesque Manor Gardens (source)

However, after only a year of operation disaster struck. In 1932, 10 July, a collision occurred at the now disused Beach station, overlooking the North Bay.

Driver Herbert Carr, only 25, lost his life, and numerous passengers were injured. Thankfully when a similar accident occurred in 1948, everyone survived and injuries were minimal.

On July 6, 1940, the attraction closed until Easter 1945. WWII no doubt led many to fear a repeat of the bombardment that occurred during WWI, and securing coastal defences took priority over the running of the railway. Interestingly enough, the small tunnel in Manor Gardens gained a new function – as a place for the Royal Naval School of Music to store their musical instruments whilst operating from the nearby Norbreck Hotel.

North Bay Railway

Above: The tunnel at Northstead Manor Gardens (source)

The railway was acquired from Scarborough Council in 2007 by the North Bay Railway Company, who also now operate the Water Chute, Boating Lake, Sky Trail and more. Thanks to their continuing hard work, the miniature railway still delights passengers today, and aspiring train drivers can even book a session at the controls.

North Bay Railway

Above: The train and the water chute in the background (source)

There are plenty of stories to be told about the railway – any memories are very welcome, as are corrections, additional details and so on.

Please comment below or get in touch via the Facebook Page.

Sources

North Bay Railway’s website

A short history of the North Bay Railway

In-depth history of the attraction here

Scarborough Civic Society

Materials held at the Scarborough Room at Scarborough Library

 

An Open Air Theatre

Scarborough was once a treasure trove of theatrical venues. Scarborough Opera House opened on St. Thomas Street in 1876, the Spa Theatre in 1879 and there was also live entertainment at the Aquarium, which opened in 1877.

Scarborough’s oldest theatre was the Theatre Royal, which opened in 1771, and there were many more not mentioned here, since demolished and/or redeveloped.

Some, like the Futurist (1920) and the Palladium Picture House (1912) served first as cinemas before accommodating live entertainment, and the outdoor performance space in Alexandra Gardens (1908) proved so popular that a roof was added, later becoming a full-blown theatre that could accommodate visitors during all weather conditions.

You can read more about Scarborough’s many former theatres by visiting this link.

The Open Air Theatre in Northstead Manor Gardens, however, was a little different. Once described as ‘The Drury Lane of the open air’, there was no protection here from the unpredictable British weather. It opened in 1932, and performances took place on a stage that was in fact located on an island in the middle of the lake at the centre of the gardens. This was truly an ambitious and exciting project for Scarborough…

Open Air Theatre

Above: The Open Air Theatre (source)

The site in question was purchased by the Scarborough Corporation in 1926, to be developed into pleasure gardens, which would include a water chute, boating lake and miniature railway line. Known locally as Hodgson’s Slack, this natural ampitheatre offered an ideal setting for live entertainment, and would eventually accommodate as many as eight thousand audience members. For sell-out performances some would even sit on the nearby grassy banks, when seating proved insufficient to meet demand.

Open Air Theatre

Above: From the opening night (source)

The first performance was a grand affair, opened by the Lord Mayor of London in the summer of 1932. He reportedly said:

The setting is ideal and constitutes a wonderful tribute to the imagination of whoever realised the possibilities to be derived from this particular park of the park, and also to the engineers who carried out the necessary embellishments and alterations which provide such a picturesque stage and background and also such splendid accommodation.

 
Merrie England, a well-known light opera penned by Sir Edward German, was the first production to be performed at the theatre, and one of many ambitious performances by Scarborough Amateur Operatic Society over the following decades. First performed in London, in 1902, the story is set during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.

Open Air Theatre

Above: Cast members from Merrie England at Scarborough’s Open Air Theatre (source)

Many productions enjoyed success here – West Side Story, Annie Get Your Gun, Carmen, Bohemian Girl, Hiawatha….

Open Air Theatre

Above: Annie Get Your Gun (source)

Below: King’s Rhapsody (source)

Open Air Theatre

In the 1950s It’s a Knockout became a popular addition to the theatre’s repertoire, continuing well after the last musical – West Side Story – was staged in 1968. The latter featured Hi-di-Hi actress Ruth Madoc in a starring role. Nine years later the dressing rooms and much of the scenery buildings on the island were removed, as was the seating, and, following the complete closure of the venue in 1986, the remaining structures fell into gradual decay.

Open Air Theatre

Above: The theatre during its heyday (source)

In 2008, the go-ahead was received for a major redevelopment, and in 2010 the rejuvinated theatre was re-opened by the Queen. With a slightly reduced seating capacity of 6, 500, the venue has hosted, to date, a range of different acts, including Boyzone, Tom Jones and Elaine Paige in 2015, as well as community events in the past and even televised showings of England World Cup Matches in 2010, via a large screen.

You can see a list of upcoming events here.

Have you ever been to the Open Air Theatre? How do old and new compare? See any mistakes in the history above? If so please comment or get in touch. For more pictures and memories see the Facebook Page.

Sources

A brief history of the theatre

Scarborough theatre history

Scarborough News

Scarborough Civic Society

Materials held at the Scarborough Room at Scarborough Library

Peasholm Park: A World Of Eastern Wonders?

Peasholm Park, in Scarborough, North Yorkshire, is notable for its Orient-inspired design features – the island pagoda, Chinese statues and suspended lanterns, just to name a few examples.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Lake and bridge (Copyright: Stories From Scarborough)

This picturesque park was designed in the early 1900s by Borough Engineer Harry W. Smith – creator of many of the seaside town’s landmarks (Floral Hall, the South Bay Pool and Northstead Manor Gardens for example), Peasholm Park was built on land that was formerly part of the Northstead Estate. More specifically, development focused on an area then called Tucker’s Field, transforming a muddy expanse into landscaped gardens.

Peasholm Park

Above: An early image of the new park, before the building of the pagoda (source)

Decades earlier, during the late 1800s, Victorian Britain had developed an obsession for the Far East, and designers eagerly appropriated styles imported from China, Japan and other then ‘exotic’ lands. Indeed, Scarborough’s aquarium was inspired by Hindu temples, and the Turkish Baths, also Eastern-inspired, would eventually become an Indian Village attraction in the early 1900s. Seaside towns sought to emulate far away places in the attractions they offered to visitors, although often perpetuated crude stereotypes in the process.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Park was not the only Eastern-inspired Scarborough attraction (source)

Even further back, Chinese pottery was much coveted by traders and consumers in the 1700s, so much so that English potters began to imitate their styles (Thomas Minton is typically credited with pioneering this approach). In order to sell this so-called Willow Pattern, Minton and his contemporaries imbued their designs with an exotic story – typically involving a wealthy mandarin and his daughter’s illicit love affair.

Peasholm Park

Above: Some of Peasholm’s subtle features (Copyright: Stories From Scarborough)

Ironically enough, such stories were the inventions of enterprising English businessmen, such as Minton, and were not directly derived from authentic Chinese tales per se. Indeed, the Western world created a version of the Orient that romanticised its cultural traditions for consumers.

Peasholm Park

Above: Peasholm Park re-imagines the fictional landscape in which Minton’s story took place (source)

Harry W. Smith was inspired by the Willow Pattern story, and, reputedly also by the beauty of Japanese gardens and architecture. He sought to represent these various diverse threads of Eastern inspiration within the park, which opened on June 19th, 1912, following purchase of the land by the Scarborough Corporation during the preceding year.

Peasholm Park

Above: In 1927 the Naval Warfare display was launched at the park (source)

Smith wanted to create authentic-looking gardens, and therefore sought assistance from local alderman Colonel J.R. Twentyman – a Chinese connoisseur of sorts and recent purchaser of Kirby Misperton Hall (later Flamingoland).

Twentyman had hired Chinese and Italian workers to construct gardens and structures inspired by their respective countries within the grounds of his sprawling new home. He also commissioned statues and ornaments, a selection of which were purchased for Peasholm in 1931, and can still be seen today within the park.

The crowning jewel in Peasholm’s crown, however, was the impressive pagoda, which was designed by architect George W. Alderson and built in 1929. Illuminated at night, perched at the height of a cascading waterful, this imitation of a structure found in both China and Japan, excuded a mysterious aura. Sadly, in recent decades it has suffered attacks of vandalism, although has recently been restored anew.

Peasholm Park

Above: The magical illuminations and the pagoda (source)

Peasholm Park offers a glimpse into perceptions of Chinese (and Japanese) culture and design by Edwardian Britons. Whilst the park is worlds away from the lands it seeks to emulate, it nonetheless creates a striking visual experience for visitors.

Do you know anything more about Peasholm’s Eastern-inspired heritage? Or about the park in general? Please comment below or visit the Facebook Page for pictures, memories and more.

Sources

Friends of Peasholm Park

Scarborough Civic Society

This article by Dav White

Brief history of Kirby Misperton Hall (with reference to Colonel Twentyman)

More about the Willow Pattern here

Materials held at the Scarborough Room at Scarborough Library